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AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Tue Sep 25, 2012 2:05 am

I Still call Australia home - so does every thing else that wants to Bite, Sting, Poison and Eat You.
So will start compiling a list - over time - of all creepy crawlies, things that live in the water and things that grow down here that mean you harm - it will be a big list(provided in the link below) - click on title:- 'Facts and Figures: World's Most Venomous Snakes | Australian ...'


So I will start with the good old list of snakes (also will have a few from other parts of the world included to help people grasp the concept of, just how dangerous Australia can be to an unwary person. (The information and recomended treeatment on this post is from The Australian Venom Research Unit).


link:- http://www.avru.org/general/general_mostvenom.html

And From the 'Australian Venom Research Unit' comes recomended first aid treatment till proper medical facility is on hand. ( Although not sure how this will be of much use in a SHTF situation as medical might not be available - just hope it's a 'DRY' bite I guess.

Title: - Pressure Immobilisation Bandaging (PIB) : Applying a pressure immobilisation bandage | Australian Venom Research Unit

Link: - http://www.avru.org/firstaid/firstaid_pib.html

Pressure Immobilisation Bandaging (PIB) : Applying a pressure immobilisation bandage
in •first aid
•pressure immobilisation

Immediately: If others are present, have someone phone for medical assistance. If unable to phone, send someone for help.

Reassure the patient and encourage them to remain calm and still.

First Aid for Bites to the Lower Limb

As soon as possible, apply a broad pressure bandage from below the bite site, upward on the affected limb (starting at the fingers or toes, bandaging upward as far as possible). Leave the tips of the fingers or toes unbandaged to allow the victim’s circulation to be checked. Do not remove pants or trousers, simply bandage over the top of the clothing.

Bandage firmly as for a sprained ankle, but not so tight that circulation is prevented. Continue to bandage upward from the lower portion of the bitten limb.

Apply the bandage as far up the limb as possible to compress the lymphatic vessels.

It is vital to now apply a splint. Bind a stick or suitable rigid item over the initial bandage to splint the limb. Secure the splint to the bandaged limb by using another bandage, (if another bandage is not available, use clothing strips or similar to bind). It is very important to keep the bitten limb still.

Bind the splint firmly, to as much of the limb as possible, to prevent muscle, limb and joint movement. This will help restrict venom movement. Seek urgent medical assistance now that first aid has been applied.

First Aid for Bites on the Hand or Forearm

1 As soon as possible, apply a broad pressure bandage from the fingers of the affected arm, bandaging upward as far as possible. Bandage the arm with the elbow in a bent position, to ensure the victim is comfortable with their arm in a sling. Leave the tips of the fingers unbandaged to allow the victim’s circulation to be checked.
2 Bind a splint along the forearm.
3 Use a sling to further prevent limb movement
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FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Wed Sep 26, 2012 5:40 am

Spiders.
in category: Spiders.

If bitten by a spider always try to capture the culprit for identification purposes. Preserve it in spirit and bring it along with you to the doctors or hospital, even if it has been squashed. Pressure-immobilisation is only recommended for funnel web spider bites. A variety of common house and garden spiders frequently deliver bites but usually only result in a little local pain and swelling. Ice packs may be useful for local pain relief. Medical advice should be sought if local changes are causing concern. There are few antivenoms available for Australian spider bites.

Related


Related
White-tailed spiders

Related
Spiders, Australian

Related
Wolf spiders

Related
Huntsman spiders

Related
Black house spiders

Related

Brown house spiders

Related
Orb weaving spiders

Related
Trapdoor spiders

Related
Daddy-long-legs

Related
Jumping spiders

Related
Bird-eating spiders

Related
Necrotising arachnidism

Related
Arthropods, Australian

Related
Pressure-immobilisation

Related
Funnel web spiders

Related
Redback spiders

Related
White tailed spiders
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I'm old, tired and crotchety - what's your excuse???

FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Wed Sep 26, 2012 5:52 am

Australian Venom Research Unit.

Heading: - Jellyfish | Australian Venom Research Unit

link; - http://www.avru.org/taxonomy/term/105


Heading: - Spiders | Australian Venom Research Unit

http://www.avru.org/compendium/biogs/A000075b.htm
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I'm old, tired and crotchety - what's your excuse???

FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Sat Sep 29, 2012 12:15 am

Marine Dangers | Australian Venom Research Unit

With a high coastal population and many people living inland often making the pilgrimage to the coastal areas of Australia i think this is the next danger that should be brought to peoples attention.

marine | Australian Venom Research Unit
Link for below: - http://www.avru.org/taxonomy/term/292

Marine:
Pages in this category

•Bluebottle (Physalia spp.)

•Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri)

•Chiropsalmus jellyfish

•Cone Snails (Conus spp.)

•Hair Jelly (Cyanea capillata)

•Irukandji (Carukia barnesi)

•Jellyfish

•Jimble (Carybdea rastoni)

•Mauve Blubber (Pelagia noctiluca)

•Moon Jelly (Aurelia sp.)
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I'm old, tired and crotchety - what's your excuse???

FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Mon Oct 01, 2012 9:36 pm

Australia is full of the obvious dangers and threats, then we have the NOT so obvious such as; “Bull Dog ants” or The “Jumper ant” Myrmeciapilosula.
This 'LITTLE' Fellow deserves a spot to himself – I have been on the receiving end of this aggression Twice and will admit, if I see their nest – I go right around (at a safe distance),
– I defy anyone to withstand their sting.
During a training exercise long ago, one bloke unknowingly dived onto a nest during a simulated 'contact'. He was then Medevaced out by chopper.
We then hit that 'nest' with some 'woofer' – the only thing I know that gets a 100% kill rate with them.

From - 'Romsey Australia.' ◦
Australian Venomous Ants

Deaths from jumper ant stings have occurred in Australia

Photograph courtesy Alex Wild 2005 myrmecos.net

The “Jumper ant” Myrmecia pilosula

A primitive group of ants found only in Australia .
Introduction
Allergic reactions to stinging ants are an important cause of anaphylaxis in Australia. The proteinaceous venom can be fatal to humans.
Allergic reactions to the Jack Jumper ant (also known as the Jumper Ant, Hopper Ant) are a uniquely Australian problem, although other species such as Bulldog Ants ( Myrmecia pyriformis ) , the Green Ant of Queensland, and introduced South American Fire Ant cause allergic reactions.

Select an article on this page.
1: An encounter with “Bull Dog ants” in Melbourne 1852.
2: What is a Jack Jumper Ant? ( Myrmecia pilosula )
3: Analysis of the proteinaceous Venom in the sting.
4: Jumper ant venom can destroy cancer cells.
5: Distribution of the Jack jumper ant and their nests.
6: The venom of Jack Jumper Ants and Anaphylaxis.
7: First aid and Bush remedy for Jumper ant sting.
8: Jumper Ant allergy does not disappear quickly.
9: Inch Ant, Bull ant ( Myrmecia pyriformis ).
10: Bush remedy for Inch Ant, Bull ant sting.
11: Photograph of the Inch Ant stinger.
12: Jumper ant stings around Perth, Western Australia .
13: The Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren)

A descriptive encounter with “Bull Dog ants” in Melbourne circa 1852.
" Insects, fleas, etc, are as plentiful as it is possible to be, and the ants,
of which there are several kinds, are a perfect nuisance.

The largest are called by the old colonists, "bull-dogs," and formidable creatures they are--luckily not very common, about an inch and a half long, black, or rusty-black, with a red tail.
They bite like a little crab. Ants of an inch long are quite common.
They do not -- like the English ones -- run scared away at the sight of a human being -- not a bit of it;
Australian ants have more PLUCK, and will turn and face you.
Nay, more, should you RETREAT, they will run after you with all the impudence imaginable.

Often when my organ of destructiveness has tempted me slightly to disturb with the end of my parasol one of the many ant-hills on the way from Melbourne to Richmond, I have been obliged, as soon as they discovered the perpetrator of the attack, to take to my heels and run away as if for my life. "
Source: " A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia in 1852-53 " by Mrs Charles (Ellen) Clacy 1853

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" Around 1 in 300 people in Australia are susceptible to severe allergic reactions to stinging insects, and some will die. "

Source: Stinging insect allergy / anaphylaxis http://www.allergycapital.com.au/Pages/GPSting.html

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What is a Jack Jumper Ant?

Most Australian native stinging ants are from the genus Myrmecia a primitive group of ants found only in Australia and one other species ( Myrmecia apicalis ) can be found in New Calendonia.
There are 89 species within this group.
This group is broadly subdivided into “Jumper ants” and “Bull Dog ants”.
Bull Dog ants are large, around 15-25 mm long, whereas Jumper ants are generally 10 to 15 mm long and often display jerky, jumping movements, and when disturbed they move forward by a series of jumps of up to 50 mm each jump.
Jumper Ants are also known as “Hopper Ants” or “Skipper Ants” in South Australia. The Jumper Ant most frequently associated with allergic reactions is commonly known as the “Jack Jumper Ant” , “Jack Jumper” or “Jumping Jack”.
Jack Jumpers have a black body and orange/brown jaws/pincers and limbs.

Jumper ants sting , rather than bite , like bees and wasps, they grasp the victim in their jaws, then bend and sting them. The sting is in the tail.
They are aggressive, typically walk with a hopping motion, and can sometimes “jump” from surrounding vegetation.

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Analysis of the Venom in the sting.

Compounds found: Histamine, dopamine, norepinephrine, amino acids, oligopeptides, phospholipids, carbohydrates, melittin, apamin, mast cell degranulating peptide, secapin, tertiapin, protease inhibitor, procamine A & B, phospholipase A & B, hyaluronidases, acid phosphomonoesterase, alpha-D-glucosidase

Referenced from: WCH Clinical Toxicology Resources The University of Adelaide Australia

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Jumper ant venom can destroy cancer cells.

" The immunotoxin, which incorporates a major component from the venom of the jumper ant Myrmecia pilosula is four times more potent than an immunotoxin derived from bee venom... "

" In a development that promises a new approach to cancer therapy, UTS researchers have developed a chemical "warhead" — known as an immunotoxin — that effectively targets malignant cells with a new toxin found in an Australian ant.
Professor Robert Raison of the Cell and Molecular Biology Department describes the ant toxin and the vehicle for delivering it as "a guided missile".
In the earlier research, Professor Raison’s team isolated melittin, a toxic protein in bee venom. They fused the gene encoding the toxic protein with the gene encoding the binding site of an antibody molecule in order to produce a new protein with strong anti-cancer properties, especially effective against the human leukaemia known as multiple myeloma.

He believes the team’s current research involving the highly potent toxin from the venom of the jumper ant and its efficient delivery by means of an antibody mechanism to specific cancer sites in the body represents a new approach in the development of immunotoxins for cancer chemotherapy.

While the aim of developing a potent and site-specific "magic bullet" with minimal side effects has motivated cancer researchers throughout the world, Australia’s humble jumper ant might yet provide UTS with a winner in the international cancer research stakes. "

Source: Newsroom, University of Technology, Sydney http://www.newsroom.uts.edu.au/ 7 May 2001

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Distribution
The Jack jumper ant has a widespread distribution

These ants are found in Tasmania, Victoria, The ACT, the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales and coastal New South Wales, the Adelaide Hills in South Australia, and with some pockets reported in the Blue Mountains, some parts of Western Australia and unconfirmed sightings in Queensland. It is likely that there are other (as yet undescribed) habitats as well, and that observations relate to interactions between ant colonies and human habitats. Map Source and data verification. (1)
Tasmania:
A study of the epidemiology of allergy to jack jumper ant stings jack jumper ant venom allergy is a major problem in Tasmania, affecting 2.7% of the population, with 1% of the population having suffered a life-threatening reaction when stung.
A staggering 12% of the Tasmanian population is stung by jack jumpers every year, and the risks of developing jack jumper venom allergy and having a life-threatening reaction both increase almost three-fold with age>35 years. During the team’s study follow-up period, people with a history of allergic reactions had a 70% risk of having a further reaction if they received another sting – an exceptionally high figure (compared with 25-50% risks quoted for wasp stings.(2)

" Currently, around 12,000 Tasmanians and an estimated 60,000 Australians are known to suffer a serious allergy to Jack Jumper Ant stings. Of these, around 4000 Tasmanians are highly allergic, having experienced the condition known as anaphylaxis which puts them at a significant risk of death. " (3)

Nests are often difficult to find

Although established nests can form massive mounds, they are often difficult to find, and may be present under rock, with the entrance surrounded by a pile of fine gravel. Typically, a couple of sentry ants are present at the entrance.
The ants are aggressive, and often hunt alone. They will stray away from the nest, and at times find their way into people's houses and kitchens. It is very difficult to avoid being stung by jumper ant in endemic areas, when nests are located close to human inhabitants.

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Allergic reactions may occur to ant stings

There are different types of allergic reactions to stinging insects. The stings of jumper ants, like those of bees and wasps, are very painful.
Local swelling is very common and large local swellings can also occur, lasting a few days at a time.
The most serious reactions are known as generalised allergic reactions, of which the most severe is called anaphylaxis.

The proteinaceous venom of Jack Jumper Ants and Anaphylaxis.
Anaphylaxis :
Exaggerated reaction of an organism to a foreign protein or other substance.
Anaphylaxis occurs after exposure to an allergen (such as food, insect sting or medicine), to which a person is already extremely sensitive.
It results in potentially life-threatening symptoms, including:
o Difficulty/noisy breathing
o Swelling of tongue
o Swelling/tightness in throat
o Difficulty talking and/or hoarse voice
o Wheeze or persistent cough
o Chest tightness
o Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
o Confusion, loss of consciousness and/or collapse
o Pale and floppy (in young children)

In some cases, anaphylaxis is preceded by less dangerous allergic symptoms, eg:
o Swelling of face, lips and eyes
o Congestion and watering of the nose and eyes
o Hives or welts on the skin
o Headaches, anxiety, flushing

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First aid:
For Australian stinging ants:
Jumping ants / jack jumper ant, (Myrmecia pilosula), Bull or Bulldog Ant (Myrmecia pyriformis), Green-head Ant (Rhytidopenera metallica) * Blue Ant " (Diamma bicolor) (this is actually a type of wasp) and other ants mentioned in this article.

If you have previously had a serious allergic or anaphylactic reaction to an ant sting:
o You should consult your doctor about the need for you to carry adrenaline for use in the event of an ant sting.
o If you have received an ant sting (7) inside the mouth or throat:
o Ring 000 for an ambulance.

If you have been stung by an ant and have previously had a serious allergic or anaphylactic reaction to an ant sting you should follow these steps:
o Ring 000 for an ambulance
o Administer your adrenaline if you have been instructed to use it in this situation
o Avoid movement as much as possible
o Wait for the ambulance

If you have been stung by an ant and have NOTpreviously had a serious reaction to an ant sting you should follow these steps:
o Wash the stung area with soap and water
o Apply a cold pack to the area to relieve pain and swelling
o If there is persistent or severe swelling and/or itching, take antihistamine tablets for 1-3 days
o Antihistamines are available from pharmacies without a prescription. The pharmacist will be able to recommend one suitable for you.
o Even if you have never been stung by an ant before, watch for the following symptoms, they may indicate a serious allergic or anaphylactic reaction, which requires urgent medical attention:
o red blotches on the skin or an itchy rash over the body
o swelling in parts of the body away from the stung area, especially the lips and around the eyes
o feeling faint, light-headed or dizzy
o breathing difficulties such as wheeze or shortness of breath
o chest tightness.
Source: This information was provided courtesy of the Austin Hospital. Melbourne Australia. Available at the Austin Health website http://austin.org.au/
(7) Note: "bite" has been used by the source and was replaced with sting/stung by the author.

Bush remedy for Jumper ant sting
When there are no signs of allergic symptoms.
" The young tips of bracken fern rubbed on a jumper ant sting is a useful bush remedy that was discovered and used by Australian Aborigines. ".
This bush remedy may alleviate the local pain that may be experienced when an ant sting has occurred.
Source: Newsletter of Manly Council’s Bushland Reserves Summer 2003 — Manly’s Bushland News 3
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Anaphylaxis to Jumper Ant stings is not rare
In areas where jumper ants are common, population surveys have shown that between 2 and 3 per cent of people have had generalised allergic reactions, and in around half of these people the reactions can be life-threatening.
Deaths from jumper ant stings have occurred in Australia, with several recorded cases in recent years ( including one in the Macedon Ranges(4) ).
Since allergy as a cause of death can be difficult to detect at post mortem , it is conceivable that deaths due to sting allergy are under-reported.

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Jumper Ant allergy does not disappear quickly.

Follow-up studies have shown that around 70 per cent of people with jumper ant allergy, will have another allergic reaction if re-stung. This sensitivity to repeat stings appears to persist for many years.
Management options
Patients with allergic reactions to jumper ants, as with other allergies, need to avoid the trigger (where possible), carry emergency medication (adrenaline/EpiPen) and know what to do if accidental exposure occurs.
Wearing a MedicAlert (or similar) bracelet may provide additional information to attending doctors or ambulance officers.

Avoiding Jumper ants

Jumper ants are difficult to avoid in endemic areas, as they often stray long distances from the nests.
Destroying nearby nests has been proposed to reduce the risk of accidental stings, but may not prevent stings from nests located further away.
Wearing heavy clothing such as boots and gloves when in the bush or when gardening seems sensible, but the ants can still sting through heavy clothing. Whether moving from endemic areas to another area may help is uncertain.

Reference: Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. ASCIA May 2005 www.allergy.org.au

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Inch Ant, Bull ant ( Myrmecia pyriformis ) body length about 25 mm.

Inch or Bulldog Ants, have a sting in their abdomen/tail attached to a venom gland. Stings can be quite painful and may result in allergic reactions, up to and including anaphylaxis. Secondary infection, though uncommon, may occur. Honeybees leave their sting in the wound, but Wasps and Ants do not, so may sting more than once.
– there are at least four to five different species including M. forficata (found in Tasmania, Victoria, NSW), M. gratiosa (Perth WA) and
M. pyriformis (found in Victoria, South Australia and NSW).

The Inch Ant stinger

Reference. NSW HEALTH Snakebite and Spiderbite Clinical Management Guidelines
Image courtesy: NSW HEALTH Snakebite and Spiderbite Clinical Management Guidelines

Bull Ant, Inch Ant sting Remedy.
Where there are no signs of Anaphylaxis present the painful reaction to the sting can be alleviated by using a natural remedy. If you have a pigface groundcover " Carpobrotus glaucescens also known as Pigface or Angular Pigface which is a member of the Family Aizoaceae. " growing nearby simply take a couple of leaves and squeeze the juice from the leaves on the stung area. Rub in gently and you will notice an almost immediate pain relief.
This natural remedy is only good if you apply it almost immediately.
Reference. Carpobrotus glaucescens Australian Government Australian National Botanic Gardens.
http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/interns-2005 ... scens.html Accessed 04/01/2011

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Western Australia.
There are also at least two other species of jumper ants known to cause anaphylaxis in Western Australia, including M. ludlowi.
A study of bull dog ant and jumper ant stings around Perth, Western Australia has found that one particular bulldog ant, Myrmecia gratiosa (5), is responsible for most cases of life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to ant sting. Around Perth, Myrmecia gratiosa was the only species of stinging ant found around the locations where reactions had occurred, even though around 10 different species are known to be found in the region. Venom immunotherapy (desensitization) has been shown to be highly effective.(6)

Myrmecia gratiosa and distribution map.

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Other types of ants that can cause an anaphylactic reaction include greenhead ants – Rhytidoponera metallica – and the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, both found in Queensland.

The Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren)
The invasive Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) is well established at two locations in the Brisbane area located in Queensland Australia.
The potential for anaphylactic events in Australia due to the Fire ant S. invicta will be greater than for native ants because of its unusual venom, its habit of forming super colonies in grassy areas, and its aggressive group territorial defence, which can result in multiple stings.

The venom of S. invicta is unusual, being composed largely of alkaloids, but also including four different proteins. These proteins, as well as the non-protein components of the venom, are each individually capable of inducing anaphylaxis.

The polygynous form of S. invicta often completely dominates areas where it has invaded, forming interconnected super colonies. Coupled with grassy areas as its preferred habitat, the probability of contact with humans is high.

Aggressive pheromone-driven group defence of territory and the colony results in a high probability of multiple stings.
Reference: The Medical Journal of Australia http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/176 ... l#CACHBCGF"

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Source for cited articles and reference material:
(1) Map Source and map courtesy of: Australian Venom Research Unit, The University of Melbourne Australia
http://www.avru.org/general/general_jumper.html Accessed: 20th September 2010
(2) Source: Media Release 8 February 2006 NEW RESEARCH INTO BULL DOG ANT DANGER Royal Hobart Hospital Research Foundation Annual Report 2007 Accessed 24th Sep 2009
(3) Source: The fatal allergy Maria Fletcher Yarlington, Tasmania 12.08.05 http://tasmaniatimes.com
(4) Source: Uncorroborated statements from several local residents of one suspected jumper ant envenoming fatality in Monegeeta in the 1980´s
(5) Myrmecia gratiosa Distribution data courtesy: CSIRO, 2010. Ants Down Under, viewed 17 January 2010, (6) NEW RESEARCH INTO BULL DOG ANT DANGER Australasian College for Emergency Medicine Media Release 8 February 2006 Accessed 17 January 2010
Reference: WCH Clinical Toxicology Resources The University of Adelaide Australia
Reference: Newsroom, University of Technology, Sydney http://www.newsroom.uts.edu.au/ 7 May 2001
Reference: Newsletter of Manly Council’s Bushland Reserves Summer 2003 — Manly’s Bushland News 3
Reference: Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. ASCIA May 2005 www.allergy.org.au
Reference: NSW HEALTH Snakebite and Spiderbite Clinical Management Guidelines
Reference: Stinging insect allergy / anaphylaxis http://www.allergycapital.com.au/Pages/GPSting.html
Reference: The Medical Journal of Australia http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/176 ... l#CACHBCGF"
Reference: The Austin Hospital. Melbourne Australia. website http://austin.org.au/
Reference: Sutherland SK, Sutherland J. Venomous creatures of Australia: a field guide with notes on first aid. Oxford University Press: Melbourne; 1999.
Reference: Sutherland SK, Hawdon GM, Winkel KD. First aid for snake bite in Australia: with notes on first aid for bites and stings by other Australian venomous creatures. The Australian Venom Research Unit: Parkville.
Reference: CSIRO, 2010. Ants Down Under, viewed 17 January 2010, .
Reference: Elliot, W.R. & Jones, D.L. (1982) Encyclopedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation, Vol 2 . pg: 466. Lothian Publishing Company, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland.

Australian Venomous Ants. (13 pages)
by Romsey Australia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia License.

Revised January 2012
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I'm old, tired and crotchety - what's your excuse???

FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Wed Oct 10, 2012 6:55 am

NB: {All comments in script and { } are from my personal experience - FNQ'er1}

{From first hand experience - these are aggressive buggers - you only need to be close to them sometimes and they will attack with no reason. I had a small orchard down south and these trees attracted their nests and I would often have to go out before sunrise to dispatch a nest full of wasps. Between sundown and sun up is the best time for this Common to find in sheds and und the eves of your house}.

Paper Wasps (Polistes spp., Ropalidia spp.)
The papery nest made from chewed wood is the reason paper wasps are so named. There are several species in Australia, both native and introduced. They form colonies up to several hundred in number, made of brood cells adjoining each other in a honeycomb pattern. One or several wasps may attack when disturbed, and repeated exposure to the venom could lead to to hypersensitivity.
>>>>>-----<<<<<
{Not aggressive - more nuisance value as they would build their nests in small areas such as whipper snipers/brush cutters, chain saws exhausts and similar items. Usually meant you would muck around from 1/2 an hour to an hour trying to get it to work before checking the exhaust}.

Mud Wasps (Sphecidae, Pompilidae)
Mud wasps are solitary wasps which build their nest in the form of a tube of mud. This is then provisioned with insects or spiders which are stung, paralysing the prey rather than killing it. Eggs are then laid on the paralysed prey, and hatching larvae consume the fresh prey and develop to adult wasps inside the mud nest. In contrast to social species such as European wasps and hornets, these wasps are generally not aggressive.
>>>>>-----<<<<<
{ Never found any of these to pose a problem}.

Hornet (Vespa tropica)
The term 'hornet' is sometimes used to refer to a number of different species of wasp, but is more properly applied only to the large wasps of the genus Vespa. Currently there have been no confirmed reports of hornets in mainland Australia, although the Asian species Vespa tropica is found in New Guinea and has been recorded as having reached the Australian islands in the Torres Strait. Members of this genus are typically very aggressive, and can inflict a particularly painful sting.
>>>>>-----<<<<<
{ Have noticed and been told by a medical professional that their stings are more potent in good pollen collection years - may or may not be true, as I have no scientific proof, but the stings do seem worse. -
Dangerous when they swarm - keep well away from them in this swarm stage - If you are stung the bee sting releases a pheromone that attracts and induces others to attack. Call an apiarist to remove the swarm. - Was once told by a ranger mate of mine about a couple of hives that had been washed up during a recent flood to a stock reserve so we planned a trip before sunrise to take these lost hives to a good new home as bees need 16 degrees + before they fly - what a load of crap - those hives are still there as far as I know and can stay there, the moral to the story is - 'don't believe all the articles written by experts' - THEY DO FLY AT LOWER TEMPS - ESSPECIALLY IF YOU DON'T CLOSE THE DOOR TO THE HIVE!!!!!}

Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
As well as colonies in domestic apiaries, there are also feral colonies of honey bees in Australia. These can present a problem in some drier areas, where they congregate in hundreds or even thousands around sources of water. They form large colonies and will attack in large numbers if disturbed, although each bee is only capable of stinging once. Allergy to bee sting is common, and fatalities have occurred as a result of anaphylaxis.
>>>>>-----<<<<<
{These only became a problem in the Riverina region within the last 3 decades. One of the main problems with these is they nested in garden beds and rockeries. They were also partial to landing on a drink bottle/can and crawling down the open neck - this was the warning first issued when they were detected in our area - then as you drink the wasp starts stinging multiple times}.

European Wasp (Vespula germanica)
European wasps are roughly the same size and general shape as honeybees, but easily distinguished by their bright yellow and black markings. They build large nests, usually hidden underground or in a cavity. They are quite aggressive when disturbed, and multiple stings are common. They pose a serious threat to humans, and colonies found near buildings or walkways should be professionally exterminated. A single wasp away from the nest poses less of a threat and is likely to refrain from aggressive behaviour if left unmolested.
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I'm old, tired and crotchety - what's your excuse???

FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Fri Oct 19, 2012 7:27 am

Thought if I'm letting people know about the risks in the Land-Down-Under, if you are unfortunate to get bitten by some of these it is important to use current first aid practices. Also try and keep the specimen that bit the victim - ONLY IF THIS IS SAFE. (Don't want people man-handling an active inland Taipan)
Otherwise try and give a good verbal description to medical staff - they usually have a fairly accurate poster of nasties in their treatment areas and know the local creatures that are present that could be encountered.
From the Australian Venom Research Unit.
...............................

Antivenom
Antivenoms are purified antibodies which act as a kind of molecular sponge to soak up venoms or venom components (toxins). The most commonly used animal in the production of Australian antivenoms is the horse. Sheep, rabbits and dogs are also currently used in Australia. Venom is obtained in a number of different ways. Snakes and funnel web spiders are milked for their venom. Stonefish, redback spider and box jellyfish venoms are extracted from dissected glands and tissues. This can be a dangerous process.
Today there are 12 commercially available antivenoms in Australia.

Australian snake antivenoms Produced in: Other Australian antivenoms Produced in:

Tiger snake Horses Funnel web spider Rabbits
Brown snake Horses Redback spider Horses
Taipan Horses Australian paralysis tick Dogs
Black snake Horses Box jellyfish Sheep
Death adder Horses Stonefish Horses
Sea snake Horses
Polyvalent snake Horses
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I'm old, tired and crotchety - what's your excuse???

Clay8ton
Posts: 115
Joined: Wed Oct 10, 2012 10:48 pm
Location: Upper Ottawa Valley

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby Clay8ton » Fri Oct 19, 2012 1:26 pm

Good Reading FNQ'er-1
I noticed tha Black Widow Spiders is not on your list. Do you not have them in AU?
One thing we keep in the refridgerator, for minor allergic reactions to bites, is " Benadryl Spray" which just came on the market here this year. It is a Topical Analgesic Spray that works fast to calm the pain and itch of MINOR allergic reactions... as always though, if the reactions are severe, Seek Medical Help Right Away!!
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Charter Member of a Canadian Minority... White, Male and in my 50's!!!!

FNQ'er-1
Posts: 405
Joined: Fri Aug 17, 2012 7:18 am
Location: North Qld - in the Land Down Under.

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby FNQ'er-1 » Fri Oct 19, 2012 10:29 pm

No - we don't have the black widow, but same family is the Red-Back from memory. Our spiders are two types only - Serious with hospitalisation, - others just annoying with their bites and some discomfort and some pain.
We only developed an anti-venom for the "Sydney-Funnel web" around the mid 80's - pre this date if you were bitten you faced death as a high possibility. For kids it was often fatal. As they wander during breeding season and get into shoes and into your house. Dogs are not affected by these bites.
I think we have a 'bush' one as well - don't know if it has caused any fatalities but I have come across a funnel web looking spider (even down to it's aggression level) in bushland approx 400k's from where they are known to be. Fortunately these known very toxic species are in a smallish belt around the Sydney Newcastle area.
Whitetails kill an average of 1 person a year. Those that survive a 'White-Tail' bite have a non-healing wound for a long period of time - they can also cause bits to be amputated. It is also recorded (from memory) that these bites can continue to 'break-out' for up to two years.
Australia has a multitude of things that are lethal to man the reasoning behind this is that this continent was isolated for so long causing some dramatic changes in the toxicity levels.

There are still a lot of insects here undiscovered, the Irukandji Jellyfish was only identified in 1964 by a Dr. Jack Barnes. (link: - http://www.irukandjijellyfish.com/ )
{{The Irukandji is believed to be the most venomous creature in the world, and Dr Jamie Seymour (James Cook University T'svlle) was the first to develop a tank to keep a live specimen in, if you look at this article it appears they may have a good chance at a successful method for treatment now}.

We teach our kids young that there is danger on land and water down here.
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I'm old, tired and crotchety - what's your excuse???

User avatar
susannah755
Posts: 1226
Joined: Mon Feb 20, 2012 2:24 pm
Location: Australia

Re: AUSTRALIA - LAND OF MANY NASTYS.

Postby susannah755 » Sat Oct 20, 2012 9:30 am

Always remember to bang your boots on the ground and up-end them to shake out any nasties before ya put em on.
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